Thanks for your reply.
In "point" of fact I am further informed that there were at least three "gladius" shapes.
If you can find more information on the types and their usage, I would like to know.
The Early Legion "spear" was not intended for "cut and thrust" and was called a "pilum" and was for throwing. Gibbon likened Legion tactics to a "musket volley followed by a bayonet charge" This is quite an oversimplification. A model I built of a Pilum punched cleanly through four ply plywood at fifteen yards.
The Gladuis was apparently intended for thrust primarily and cut secondarily.
The Legions eveolved in arms and armor considerably over a period of four centuries and any input you might have on their evolution (and evolutions) would interest me.
Initially, or shuld I say at one point in time skirmishers (VELITES) were armed with longer ranged "javelins" (verutum?) and acted in much the same fashion as, I suppose, Voltigeurs might have acted for Napoleon's troops and "Light Companies" for Bristish Imperial Armies of the 18th and 19th Centuries.
The former would seek to disrupt attacking formations and allow, in the case of the Legions, the closer volleys to strike an already disorganized unit.
This can get more complex and interesting.
The Legions, as noted, continually had to adapt to changing terrains, enemies and geography and did so successfully for a long period of time.
Nonetheless, there were many notable instance where significant defeats were heaped on them, which I hope we can go into.
The Gladius and Pilum really have no exact parallel that I have yet found in Eastern Martial History. But I am hoping this "forum" can fill in the blanks a bit.
Zulu Impes and British troops as late as Culloden mimicked certain probable Early Legionary fighting skills and tactics, and I hope we can discuss these as well.