So in the US public schools there was a movement away from character education for a long time - that course has now (thankfully) been reversed and many schools have adopted the "habits of mind" as a springboard format for character education.
The most popular model are "16 Habits of Mind" identified by Costa and Kallick http://www.habits-of-mind.net/
* Thinking and communicating with clarity and precision
* Managing impulsivity
* Gathering data through all senses
* Listening with understanding and empathy
* Creating, imagining, innovating
* Thinking flexibly
* Responding with wonderment and awe
* Thinking about thinking (metacognition)
* Taking responsible risks
* Striving for accuracy
* Finding humor
* Questioning and posing problems
* Thinking interdependently
* Applying past knowledge to new situations
* Remaining open to continuous learning
"Managing Impulsivity" if often looked at very closely as a way to help students regulate their behavior and be better able to learn.
However Lewis' text also is very focused on the fact that teaching a child flawed reasoning is nearly as dangerous as teaching them none.
What he also strongly cautions against is teaching a child that a theory is invalid without teaching a replacement theory that is considered valid AND being sure they understand the difference between the two.
Otherwise, if you only identify to kids what is invalid without giving them a replacement you'll end up with kids that are cynical and skeptical of all things but without a framework they can use to exmaine why they are that way.
And in the dojo it would play out in the way that you tell students that a certain approach isn't valid without offering a replacement approach that is.
Reason must be two-sided. One must be able to clearly reason what is not valid and clearly reason what is.
I know that might seem kind of obvious - but we're living in an age when there's quite a bit of media telling everyone lots of different stuff - and if we don't have good filters in place (a good sense of reasoning) then we're likely to end up with a people (and in the dojo with students) who are quickly swayed by the fad du jour instead of taking new ideas into consideration and then reasoning what is bunk and what is valid.